Chhattisgarh State

Introduction :

Chhattisgarh is a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on 1 November 2000. Raipur serves as its capital. It is the 10th largest state of India by area of 52,199 sq mi (135,194 kmē). Chhattisgarh takes its name from 36 (Chattis is thirty-six in Hindi and Garh is Fort) princely states in this region from very old times, though the listing of these 36 forts has always remained a point of dispute.

It borders Madhya Pradesh on the northwest, Maharashtra on the west, Andhra Pradesh on the south, Orissa on the east, Jharkhand on the northeast and Uttar Pradesh on the north.

The Chhattisgarhi language, a dialect of eastern Hindi, is a predominant language in the state, recognized along with Hindi as the official language of the state. In addition, Nearly 3 million people speak Koshali dialect of Oriya Language. many tribal and some Dravidian influenced dialects or languages are spoken in various parts of Chhattisgarh.

The north and south parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertile plain. Forests cover roughly forty-four percent of the state.

The northern part of the state lies on the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain: The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain.

The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi and its tributaries, with extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills, (part of the Satpuras), and from the plains of Orissa to the east by ranges of hills.

The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary the Indravati River.

The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. Other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk and Arpa.It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh. Maoist insurgency has been main source of instability, recently they ambushed to kill 40 policemen.

Chhattisgarh is primarily a rural state with only 20% of population residing in urban areas.

Chhattisgarh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at 12 billion USD in current prices. After partition, this mineral-rich state produces 30% of the output of the old Madhya Pradesh state.

The state's economy is further fuelled by the presence of the Bhilai Steel Plant, S.E.C.Railway Zone, BALCO Aluminium Plant (Korba), and NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd) at Korba and Sipat (Bilaspur) and S.E.C.L. (South Eastern Coalfields Limited). Korba & Bilaspur are the power hubs of the state, from where the electricity is supplied to several other Indian states. Chhattisgarh's southern area contains iron ore which NMDC is mining to meet iron demand in India as well as export. NMDC is located in Dantewara district. Recently ESSAR has started transporting iron ore through pipe lines to Vizag.

Tourism In Chhattisgarh :

Chhattisgarh, situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The State is full of ancient monuments, rare wildlife, exquisitely carved temples, Buddhist sites, palaces, water falls, caves, rock paintings and hill plateaus. Most of these sites are untouched and unexplored and offer a unique and alternate experience to tourists compared to traditional destinations which have become overcrowded. Chhattisgarh offers the tourist a Destination with a Difference. For those who are tired of the crowds at major destinations, Bastar district, with its unique cultural and ecological identity, will come as a breath of fresh air. The Green State of Chhattisgarh has 44% of its area under forests, and is one of the richest bio-diversity areas in the country.

Climate :

Chhattisgarh has a subtropical climate. Like most of north India it has a hot dry summer(April-June) followed by monsoon rains (July-September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average rainfall is about 1,370 mm (53.9 in). It decreases from east to west. The south-eastern districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as 2,150 mm (84.6 in), while the western and north-western districts receive 1,000 mm (39.4 in) or less.

Economy :

Economy of Chattisgarh has rapidly grown in recent years. Chattisgarh recorded a high GDP growth of 7.35% from 2004-05 to 2008-09. More than 80 per cent population depends on agriculture. The area under cultivation is 43 per cent. Main crops are paddy, wheat, maize, groundnut, pulses and oilseeds. Chattisgarh is also called "Rice bowl of india". Chattisgarh has also very good irrigation systems with Dams and canals on different rivers.

Forests occupy 45 per cent of the area and has rich forest resources i.e. Wood, Tandu leaves, Honey and lac.
Chhattisgarh is rich in mineral resources. Twenty per cent of the country's steel and cement is produced in the State. Iron-ore, limestone, dolomite, coal, bauxite are found in abundance. It is the only tin-ore producing state in the country. Other minerals such as korandum, garnet, quartz, marble, diamond are also found in Chhattisgarh.

State has private and state owned industries, which are significant part of states economy. Bhilai steel plant and NTPC are some of state owned industry. Balco (sterlite industry), Lafarge and Jindal steel are some of big private industry in the state.